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The Hydraulic jump: Hydraulic jumps in open channels

In an open channel flow, the transition from a fast, torrential, supercritical flow to a slow, fluvial, subcritical flow is called a hydraulic jump. Although the hydraulic jump was described by Leonardo da Vinci, the first experimental investigations were published by G. Bidone (1820). The present theory of the jump was developed by J.B. Bélanger (1841) and it has been verified experimentally numerous researchers. The strength of the jump is determined by its inflow Froude number: Fr1 = V1/(g.d1)^0.5.
Hubert Chanson.

Additional notes
Video movies
The first three videos illustrate hydraulic jumps in the hydraulics of the University of Queensland.
The first video shows a steady hydraulic jump with Fr1 = 7.5.
The second video presents a weak hydraulic jump with Fr1 = 2.1.
The third video illustrates a hydraulic jump on a rough pebble bed with Fr1 = 2.8.
The last video presents a hydraulic jump on the Coomera River in March 2017, downstream of a causeway, during a major flood event.

YouTube channel >>
Hubert Chanson
Hubert Chanson
BIDONE, G. (1819). "Le Remou et sur la Propagation des Ondes." ('The Jump and on the Wave Propagation.') Report to Académie Royale des Sciences de Turin, séance 12 Dec., Vol. XXV, pp. 21-112 & 4 plates (in French).
BÉLANGER, J.B. (1841). "Notes sur l'Hydraulique." ('Notes on Hydraulic Engineering.') Ecole Royale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, France, session 1841-1842, 223 pages (in French).
CHANSON, H. (2009). "Current Knowledge In Hydraulic Jumps And Related Phenomena. A Survey of Experimental Results." European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 191-210 (DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2008.06.004)
CHANSON, H. (2012). "Momentum Considerations in Hydraulic Jumps and Bores." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138, No. 4, pp. 382-385 (DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000409).

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